A grizzly bear mother is very protective of her cubs. Here she is warning and posturing that someone is too close. She has cubs about every three years and usually just one or two at a time. During her lifetime she will probably have no more than five litters of cubs. There is a high mortality rate in newly weaned cubs, so the sow’s job is to take good care of them for the two years they are with her, and to teach them well so they are likely to survive after they leave her.